Category: Energy, transport, pollution and natural resources: key elements in

Energy, transport, pollution and natural resources: key elements in

Jump to Main Content. Federal government websites always use a. Agricultural Research Service. Organizes USDA research on the technologies and strategies needed to help farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural professionals manage their natural resources. Includes projects on water availability and watershed management, climate change, soils, and emissions, biorefining, agricultural and industrial byproducts, pasture, forage and rangeland systems, and agricultural system competitiveness and sustainability.

Offers fact sheets, webinars, videos, photos, and presentation slides for educators on measuring and managing air emissions. Presents resources to help farmers integrate environmental considerations into their daily operations. Contains fact sheets, reports, guidance documents, manuals, and other resources on the agricultural activities that cause pollution in rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, and ground water. Provides the environmental requirements for many areas of agriculture.

Includes background information, compliance aids, regulations, and permit requirements. Economic Research Service. Contains analyses of programs and policies in combating the harmful effects of agriculture as they relate to soil, water, and air quality, wildlife habitats, and wetlands. Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Links to websites and mobile applications containing soil survey, water, climate, air quality, energy, and other natural resources data relevant to agriculture. Describes programs to reduce soil erosion, enhance water supplies, improve water quality, increase wildlife habitat, and reduce damages caused by floods and other natural disasters.

Links to digital publications on sustainable land use practices and natural resources protection. An official website of the United States government. Here's how you know. Environmental Protection Agency. Soil and Water Conservation Society.Duration: 1 year; recipients may reapply.

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Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1 seniors graduating from high schools in Connecticut who plan to enroll full time in college, and 2 Connecticut residents already enrolled full time in college. Applicants must be interested in working on a degree in science or engineering leading to careers in the environmental field, especially air pollution control or waste management.

Selection is based on their proposed plan of study, transcripts, work experience, and volunteer and extracurricular activities; financial need is not considered.

Deadline for Receipt: April of each year. Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable. Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students enrolled in or accepted for enrollment as full-time undergraduates at universities in Alabama participating in the consortium.

Applicants must intend to enter the teacher certification program and teach in a pre-college setting. Applicants should have a GPA of 3.

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Members of underrepresented groups in science and mathematics minorities and women are especially encouraged to apply.

Along with their application, they must submit a 1-to 2-page statement on the reasons for their desire to enter the teaching profession, specifically the fields of science or mathematics education.

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Deadline for Receipt: February of each year. Funding for this program is provided by NASA. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed. Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to 1 college-bound high school seniors; 2 college freshmen, sophomores, and juniors enrolled full time at an accredited college or university; 3 community college graduates and transfer students who plan to study for a bachelor's degree; and 4 community college freshmen.

They must be majoring or planning to major in chemistry, biochemistry, chemical engineering, or other chemically-related fields, such as environmental science, materials science, or toxicology, and planning to prepare for a career in the chemical sciences or chemical technology.

Students planning careers in medicine or pharmacy are not eligible. Selection is based on academic merit GPA of 3.

Additional Information: This program was established in Attn: Scholarship Coordinator Renard, S. Duration: 1 year; may be renewed up to 3 additional years. Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to AISES members who are full-time undergraduate students in engineering or science related to water resources or environmental fields.

Applicants must have a GPA of 2. Non-Indians may apply, but all applicants must submit an essay on their first-hand knowledge of Indian tribal culture, their interest in engineering or environmental studies, how that interest relates to water resource issues and needs and concerns of Indian tribes, and how they will contribute their knowledge or professional experience to a Native American community.

Deadline for Receipt: June of each year. Additional Information: This program, established inis funded by the U. Recipients must agree to serve an 8-to week paid internship with the Bureau during the summer at a regional or area office located within the 17 western states served by the Bureau, at its Washington, D.

Duration: 1 year; nonrenewable Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students entering their junior or senior year in an engineering or science program at an accredited institution in the United States. The program must be associated with 1 decommissioning or decontamination of nuclear facilities; 2 management or characterization of nuclear waste; or 3 restoration of the environment. Applicants must be U. Along with their application, they must submit a brief essay discussing the importance of an aspect of decommissioning, decontamination, and reutilization to the future of the nuclear field.

Deadline for Receipt: January of each year. Eligibility Requirements: This program is open to students entering their junior or senior year in nuclear science, nuclear engineering, or a nuclear-related field at an accredited institution in the United States.

Applicants must be interested in preparing for a career dealing with the environmental aspects of nuclear science or nuclear engineering.Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. Inpollution killed 9 million people in the world. Major forms of pollution include: Air pollutionlight pollutionlitteringnoise pollutionplastic pollutionsoil contaminationradioactive contaminationthermal pollutionvisual pollutionwater pollution. Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from prehistoric timeswhen man created the first fires. According to a article in the journal Science, " soot " found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires.

Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek, Roman, and Chinese metal production. The burning of coal and wood, and the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the primary sources of pollution.

The Industrial Revolution brought an infusion of untreated chemicals and wastes into local streams that served as the water supply. King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London inafter its smoke became a problem; [6] [7] the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow. It was the Industrial Revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today.

London also recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames ofwhich led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward.

Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded viability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem. Reformers began to demand sewer systems and clean water. Inthe sanitary conditions in Berlin were among the worst in Europe. August Bebel recalled conditions before a modern sewer system was built in the late s:. Waste-water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a truly fearsome smell.


There were no public toilets in the streets or squares. Visitors, especially women, often became desperate when nature called. In the public buildings the sanitary facilities were unbelievably primitive As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, and the Imperial German government brought in its scientists, engineers, and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies, but to forge Berlin as the world's model city.

A British expert in concluded that Berlin represented "the most complete application of science, order and method of public life," adding "it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organized city that there is. The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste.

Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, and street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities ingenerating large quantities of urine and manure.

As historian Martin Melosi notes, the generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as "miracles of cleanliness". Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late s, serving as another public reminder.

Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread widely after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing.

Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contaminationwhich can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years.

ChelyabinskRussia, is considered the "Most polluted place on the planet". Nuclear weapons continued to be tested in the Cold Warespecially in the earlier stages of their development.

The toll on the worst-affected populations and the growth since then in understanding about the critical threat to human health posed by radioactivity has also been a prohibitive complication associated with nuclear power.

Sustainable Transport

Though extreme care is practiced in that industry, the potential for disaster suggested by incidents such as those at Three Mile IslandChernobyland Fukushima pose a lingering specter of public mistrust. Worldwide publicity has been intense on those disasters.Posted in Pollution and Waste Management.

The problems of pollution are not limited to the borders of a country. The harmful effects extend beyond the borders of the originator of the pollution. The EAC is working on development and harmonisation of standards and regulations on pollution control and waste management.

This is a problem that Partner States are working hard to resolve. Weak vehicle import and emission standards has resulted in the importation of old second hand vehicles, consequently increasing air pollutant emissions. EAC Partner States are taking significant steps to reduce the age limit of vehicles imported into the region.

The EAC Secretariat is working to harmonise effluent discharge standards, strengthen the capacity of EAC Partner States in enforcement of pollution control laws and establish pollution monitoring system in the EAC, and urges Partner States to allocate more resources for the implementation of conventions to which they are party such as Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.

The EAC is grappling with air pollution from transportation, industry, mining, waste management, and open burning, among others.

The EAC Partner States recognise that development activities may have negative impacts on the environment leading to the degradation of the environment and depletion of natural resources and that a clean and healthy environment is a prerequisite for sustainable development according to Article of the EAC treaty. It provides for the control and regulation of use, sale, manufacture and importation of polythene materials and products in the East African Community. The Meeting of the EAC Working Groups on Environment and Natural Resources Management in July observed that there was need to develop regional waste management guidelines, build the capacity of relevant institutions to track hazardous materials and pollutants including electronic waste and to develop industrial and domestic waste management facilities such as analytical laboratories.

energy, transport, pollution and natural resources: key elements in

In Article 28 of the Protocol on Environment and Natural Resources on Management of Chemicals, the EAC Partner States commit to develop and harmonise policies, laws and strategies to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of toxic chemicals and products containing toxic chemicals.

The EAC Partner States also commit to developing measures to control illegal trafficking of chemicals proved scientifically to be hazardous, toxic or persistent in the environment. In Article 29, the EAC Partner States pledge to develop and harmonise common policies laws and strategies relating to illegal dumping or trafficking and transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and other wastes.

E-waste contains chemical elements that have adverse effects on the environment and human health. A quick analysis of the existing e-waste management mechanisms in the EAC Partner States reveals that all the five countries lack concrete regulations for e-waste, despite the continuously growing number of ICT users.Energy moves life. The cycle of energy is based on the flow of energy through different trophic levels in an ecosystem. Our ecosystem is maintained by the cycling energy and nutrients obtained from different external sources.

At the first trophic level, primary producers use solar energy to produce organic material through photosynthesis.

energy, transport, pollution and natural resources: key elements in

The herbivores at the second trophic level, use the plants as food which gives them energy. A large part of this energy is used up for the metabolic functions of these animals such as breathing, digesting food, supporting growth of tissues, maintaining blood circulation and body temperature. The carnivores at the next trophic level, feed on the herbivores and derive energy for their sustenance and growth. If large predators are present, they represent still higher trophic level and they feed on carnivores to get energy.

Thus, the different plants and animal species are linked to one another through food chains. Decomposers which include bacteria, fungi, molds, worms, and insects break down wastes and dead organisms, and return the nutrients to the soil, which is then taken up by the producers.

Energy is not recycled during decomposition, but it is released. All elements in the earth are recycled time and again.

The major elements such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulphur are essential ingredients that make up organisms. Biogeochemical cycles refer to the flow of such chemical elements and compounds between organisms and the physical environment. Chemicals taken in by organisms are passed through the food chain and come back to the soil, air, and water through mechanisms such as respiration, excretion, and decomposition.

As an element moves through this cycle, it often forms compounds with other elements as a result of metabolic processes in living tissues and of natural reactions in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, or lithosphere. Such cyclic exchange of material between the living organisms and their non-living environment is called Biogeochemical Cycle. Carbon enters into the living world in the form of carbon dioxide through the process of photosynthesis as carbohydrates.

ENE - Energy, Natural resources and the Environment

This carbon is finally returned to the surrounding medium by the process of respiration or decomposition of plants and animals by the decomposers. Carbon is also recycled during the burning of fossil fuels. Nitrogen is present in the atmosphere in an elemental form and as such it cannot be utilized by living organisms.

This elemental form of nitrogen is converted into combined state with elements such as H, C, O by certain bacteria, so that it can be readily used by the plants.

energy, transport, pollution and natural resources: key elements in

Nitrogen is being continuously expelled into the air by the action of microorganisms such as denitrifying bacteria and finally returned to the cycle through the action of lightening and electrification. The evaporation of water from ocean, rivers, lakes, and transpiring plants takes water in the form of vapors to the atmosphere. This vaporized water subsequently cools and condenses to form cloud and water.

This cooled water vapor ultimately returns to the earth as rain and snow, completing the cycle. Energy Flow in Ecosystem Advertisements.As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

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Isah, Weil, Quah, D. Quah, Danny, Discussion Papers. Full references including those not matched with items on IDEAS More about this item Statistics Access and download statistics Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors.

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Environmental Studies - Natural Resources

Louis Fed. Help us Corrections Found an error or omission? RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.What causes air pollution? Air pollution can result from both human and natural actions. Natural events that pollute the air include forest fires, volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, pollen dispersal, evaporation of organic compounds and natural radioactivity.

Pollution from natural occurrences is not very often. Human activities that result in air pollution include: 1. Emissions from industries and manufacturing activities Consider a typical manufacturing plant: You will notice that there are long tubes called chimneys erected high into the air, with lots of smoke and fumes coming out of it.

Waste incinerators, manufacturing industries and power plants emit high levels of carbon monoxide, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air. This happens almost everywhere that people live.

Petroleum refineries also release lots of hydrocarbons into the air. Burning Fossil Fuels After the industrial age, transportation has become a key part of our lives.

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Cars and heavy-duty trucks, trains, shipping vessels and airplanes all burn lots of fossil fuels to work. Emissions from automobile engines contain both primary and secondary pollutants.

energy, transport, pollution and natural resources: key elements in

This is a major cause of pollution and one that is very difficult to manage. This is because humans rely heavily on vehicles and engines for transporting people, good and services. Fumes from car exhausts contain dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and particulates. On their own, they cause great harm to people who breathe them. Additionally, they react with environmental gases to create further toxic gases. Click here to see the effects 3. In many cases, when we use these chemicals at home or offices with no or little ventilation, we may fall ill if we breathe them.

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